The first thing that is investigated when visiting a pediatrician for any pathology or routine examination is the analysis of peripheral blood, which is taken from the finger of a child. It is the starting point for choosing a further survey. It displays the number of erythrocytes, their hemoglobin content, their sedimentation rate, the number of leukocytes with the leukocyte formula unfolded, and the number of platelets.wik.eu.com
For diagnosis, not only absolute numbers, but the percentage of blood cells is important. In fact, a blood test is a mirror of the reactions occurring in the body. And doctors know how to interpret various changes in these indicators.
You can not fully decipher them, but still have to navigate. Today we talk about lymphocytes, or rather, to increase their number – lymphocytosis. But for a start – about normal indicators.
The rate of lymphocytes in children
In the overall analysis, you will see the total percentage of all types of lymphocytes. To determine the number of individual species, more complex analyzes have been developed. But at the first stage of the survey, a finger blood test is sufficient.
So, for example, the fetus and mother have one blood for two, therefore the percentage of lymphoid cells in a newborn corresponds to adult indicators. But in the very first days of life, the baby is confronted with microorganisms of the surrounding air, bedding, toys, and all the relatives together, rushing to meet a new family member.
Then he grows and finds infectious agents himself – crawling on the floor, taking anything in his mouth. And then – kindergarten, school and in addition the whole bunch of peer microflora. That is why a child has elevated (compared to adults) lymphocytes in the blood: he produces an immune response.
Read more in the table.
Types and function of lymphoid cells
- T lymphocytes they are divided into killers, independently killing alien cells, helpers, programming B-lymphocytes to a specific immune response, and suppressors that suppress immunity against their own tissues.
- B lymphocytes they set up the production of specific antibodies against the already recognizable antigens and, by sharing, give life to a new type of plasma cell, which purposefully destroys infectious agents by means of immunoglobulins.
From what has been said, it is clear that the main function of the lymphocytic sprout is immune protection, calculated both for the current moment and for the future. The vaccine’s mechanism of action is based on this: the child’s body meets with small doses of microbes and remembers them “in person”. With the next infection, he will already be fully armed.
Causes of increased lymphocyte levels
Most often, lymphocytosis is a laboratory confirmation of a respiratory viral infection:
- Acute infectious lymphocytosis;
- Acute viral hepatitis;
- Infectious mononucleosis in children.
An increased content of lymphoid cells in the blood is also characteristic of long-term ongoing chronic bacterial infections:
In an acute bacterial process, a child will have elevated neutrophils and relatively lowered lymphocytes.
- Some protozoal infections (toxoplasmosis) and parasitic diseases (leishmaniasis) are manifested by lymphocytosis.
- Severe lymphoid hyperplasia in the general blood test is alarming in terms of lymphoproliferative diseases, more commonly known as lymphocytic or lymphoblastic leukemia.
At the beginning of these diseases, a child may have elevated monocytes and relatively low lymphocytes.
- Occasionally, medication may be the cause of lymphocytosis, as children rarely take these “adult” drugs.
- Rather, the child may develop an allergic reaction to the drug, which may be accompanied by lymphocytosis.
- We must not forget about the poisoning: the toxic effect of lead, tetrachloroethane, organic compounds of arsenic cause lymphoid hyperplasia of the bone marrow with the subsequent release of cells into the bloodstream.
- The cause of elevated lymphocytes in the blood of a child can be severe stress, prolonged sleep deprivation or fatigue, hypovitaminosis or a rare stay in the open air.
Types of lymphocytosis
In general, the analysis of peripheral blood is always calculated leukocyte formula – the percentage of all forms of white blood cells. If the rate of lymphocytes increases by reducing the percentage of the remaining leukocyte elements, talk about relative lymphocytosis. That is, the content of lymphocytes in the blood of a child is elevated relative to other cells, and not in fact.
The relative increase in the percentage of lymphocytes occurs with the development of a center of purulent inflammation of any localization, as well as with viral infections:
Associated with an increase in the number of lymphoid cells circulating in the blood, regardless of how this affects the leukocyte formula. Such a laboratory indicator occurs when:
- Chicken pox;
- Viral hepatitis;
- Lymphocytosis is not a diagnosis (unless it is an infectious lymphocytosis). This is the body’s response to the disease, so it is he who is being treated.
- Infectious lymphocytosis is caused by a lymphotropic virus and has its own clinical picture that only an infectious disease specialist can recognize. But his treatment today is symptomatic.
- In an ill child, lymphocytosis can last up to 2 months, gradually decreasing to normal.
- And finally: go back to the causes of lymphocytosis. Proper care and care for the child, compliance with preventive measures in the focus of infection will protect him from disease.
Increased level of lymphocytes in the blood of a child – video
Learn about the work of immunity: why and how the increase in the number of lymphocytes occurs, how they learn to recognize foreign proteins and in what ways they are destroyed.
Summarize. All cellular and extracellular blood elements are involved in the fight against infectious diseases. A percentage of their number allows to recognize the nature and stage of the process. For this, there is a general analysis of peripheral blood and immunogram. In order not to provoke an immune response of the organism once again, follow the principles of proper child care, temper it and protect against infection.