Cerebral ischemia is a disease associated with an insufficient supply of oxygen to the fetus during fetal development. Due to the lack of vital oxygen, there is a violation of the development of certain areas of the brain, which affects the future life of the baby.
Let’s see how cerebral ischemia manifests itself in a newborn, and also learn about the ways to diagnose and treat this ailment.
What causes cerebral ischemia in infants
- Abuse of alcohol and nicotine during pregnancy.
- Infectious and respiratory diseases of the mother during gestation.
- Heart diseases.
- Thrombosis or any other pathologies associated with a history of poor blood clotting.
- Premature placental abruption or fetus presentation.
- Acute placental insufficiency.
- Blurred amniotic fluid.
- Pathology of the cardiovascular system of the newborn.
- Damage to the baby at birth.
- Infection of the child during childbirth.
- Multiple fertility.
- Complicated labor (cord entanglement, medical stimulation of labor, cesarean section, prolonged labor).
- Premature baby.
- Age of laboring woman: girls under 18 and over 35.
Symptoms of the disease
Ischemia of the brain is of several degrees of severity, depending directly on the duration and strength of the factors that have become the basis for the development of the disease.
1 degree of severity
Cerebral ischemia 1 degree in a newborn is manifested in the first week and is not always timely diagnosed by doctors due to mild clinical symptoms:
- Restless state of infants and poor sleep. As a rule, it is associated with headaches.
- Sometimes the condition of the baby is depressed.
- Muscle Tone: Muscles are tense, tight to the touch.
- Enhanced reaction to tendon reflexes. Violations are well marked when assessing the knee jerk.
Detected in the first day after birth. Cerebral ischemia 2 degrees in newborns is very dangerous, because if the cause is not cured on time, there can be serious consequences in the form of disruption of the central nervous system.
- During sleep, the child stops breathing for a while (apnea). In this case, you can notice blue lips and a slow pulse rate.
- Pallor or cyanosis of the skin.
- Reduced muscle tone.
- When evaluating the unconditioned reflexes in the newborn, a decrease in response is noted.
- Possible hydrocephalic syndrome, manifested by an increase in the size of the head due to fluid accumulation.
- Increased fontanel, increased intracranial pressure.
- Loss of consciousness.
- The skin of the newborn becomes a marble shade.
- Violations of the digestive tract.
The most dangerous degree of severity is due to the possible persistent or irreversible consequences associated with the violation of vital body functions. Possible tissue necrosis.
- Total absence of reflexes in the newborn, lack of response to stimuli.
- The defeat of individual parts of the brain: the child becomes difficult to breathe or eat. The work of the heart system and light perception is impaired.
- Prolonged convulsions are possible.
- A child may lose consciousness or fall into a coma.
- Increased blood pressure.
- Perhaps cross-eyed.
The method of treatment chosen depends primarily on the condition of the child, as well as the severity of the disease. Ischemia of the brain is treated in the hospital under the supervision of a physician, in some cases, the child can be placed in intensive care. Also, the baby will need rehabilitation after the activities.
- When the first degree of severity of the doctor, as a rule, limited to therapeutic massage. The main objective of this method is the normalization of blood circulation and blood supply to the brain that is fully saturated with oxygen. In addition, the massage has a great effect on the muscles, relaxing them and relieving tension.x-x.us.com Doctors strongly recommend to air the room in which most of the time the baby is. Self massage can not be performed! This is a medical event that is necessarily performed by a specialist.
- When the second and third severity of the child is hospitalized in the hospital. In this case, the necessary assistance is provided on the testimony. If the function of the respiratory system is impaired, the child can be connected to a ventilator. Also urgently stop urgent conditions that are a threat to the life of the baby.
- To prescribe a full treatment, carry out diagnosis. Bilateral ultrasound, MRI and computed tomography are used to detect blood clots. In the future, it is removed. This manipulation can be done in a medical way, using diluting agents. In the future, shows the reception of anticoagulants. They help reduce blood density.
- If the baby has hydrocephalic syndrome, the doctor may prescribe diuretic drugs, but only if the swelling is small. If, in the opinion of the attending pediatrician, the drugs prove ineffective, an operative intervention is performed – an abdominal shunt is installed with its natural excretion from there. Unfortunately, in the future it is necessary to periodically show up to the doctor so that he can assess the quality of the work done, the functioning of the shunt, and also make a replacement as the child grows and develops.
- In cases of increased intracranial pressure, vasodilators are prescribed in combination with drugs that strengthen blood vessels and nootropics that improve brain activity.
Preventive measures are primarily aimed at the lifestyle of the mother who is carrying the baby:
- Refusal from tobacco and alcohol addiction;
- Frequent walks in the fresh air;
- Airing the room in which the expectant mother sleeps;
- Avoiding stressful situations;
- Proper and balanced nutrition;
- Compliance with the diet;
- Do not avoid moderate physical exertion;
- Do not overeat;
- Monitor blood hemoglobin levels
- Monitor blood pressure;
- Pass all the necessary tests on time;
- Beware of infectious diseases;
- Sleep about eight hours a day.
To alleviate the condition and control the health of the baby, you must:
- Regularly show your baby to a neurologist;
- Follow doctor’s orders;
- Use only those drugs that have been prescribed by a doctor;
- Closely monitor the child to monitor its development of psychomotor reactions to the world around it;
- Assess the state of the child during sleep and wakefulness;
- Tell the doctor in detail all the changes in behavior;
- Observe the mode of the day;
- As often as possible to go out into the fresh air with the baby;
- If the child has convulsions, it is better to refuse massage.
Children with a diagnosis of cerebral ischemia often are somewhat delayed in development: later they begin to hold their heads, roll over, crawl and walk, so it is useful to discuss gymnastic exercises with a doctor. They will help strengthen the muscles of the baby.
Cerebral ischemia in the newborn – video
From this video you will learn about the most common signs of cerebral ischemic disease (perinatal encephalopathy) in a newborn, as well as methods of treating this ailment. In addition, it addresses the issue of the possible consequences of delayed access to a doctor or improper treatment. If a disease is detected in time, by the first year of life one can say goodbye to all its manifestations in a child.
Cerebral ischemia is a disease that develops in the last months of the fetal development of a child. There are many symptoms that indicate the development of the disease. The most basic ones are muscle tone and reaction to the unconditioned reflex.
Fortunately, with timely detection of the disease can be easily treated, which is prescribed by the doctor, based on the condition of the child. Prescribe therapeutic massage, in addition, can be prescribed drug therapy.
In severe cases, the child is hospitalized and carry out the necessary surgical intervention. After treatment, a certain period of rehabilitation is required, as determined by the doctor.