Eczema is a skin disease that is accompanied by a rash and various lesions of the skin on different skin areas. Unfortunately, recently it is becoming more common in children, so today we will talk in detail about what kind of illness it is, what symptoms it is accompanied with, what is needed for diagnosis and how to prevent it.
Causes of pathology
- There are a number of factors that can cause such a disease and the genetic predisposition is considered the main one. If one of the parents of the child had dermatitis, the newborn is at risk.
- Eczema can occur if a woman has unprotected viral or bacterial diseases during pregnancy. The fact is that pathogenic microbes are able to penetrate into the amniotic fluid, where the baby is, then they enter the intestine and can cause inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract. Also, these bacteria secrete immunoglobulins, which provoke inflammation of the skin and various allergic manifestations.
- Disorders of the endocrine system (disruption of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands) and various hormonal disruptions.
- Imbalance of intestinal microflora and dysbacteriosis.
- Hyper function of the immune system. Immunity actively produces various antibodies, and the body begins to react to substances to which there is no reaction in the normal state. Therefore, there are various failures, including allergic reactions.
- Lack of vitamins and mineral trace elements in the body, as well as their excess amount.
- Overstrain of the nervous system or the body’s constant state of stress.
- Taking drugs that can actively cause allergic reactions.
- Too early lure also leads to eczema and other manifestations on the skin. As well as an introduction to the diet of the products of allergens.
- If the baby is breastfed, the presence of such foods in the mother’s diet can cause a reaction in the baby’s body.
- Allergies to various hygiene products, fabrics that come into contact with baby’s skin, and food products are another cause.
- There are changes in the skin on different areas: the face (mainly affects the cheeks), hands (elbow bends, palms), legs, fingers and buttocks.
- In the future, bubbles may form, which open, form small erosion and crust.
- Accompanied by this process is intense itching, which is intensified at night.
- The child becomes capricious, constantly trying to scratch the affected places, which subsequently leads to even greater injury to the skin, the appearance of wounds and the occurrence of further infections.
Your heed is offered a photo that shows eczema in newborns, which is manifested on the face.
- True. It affects the face, arms and legs and spreads symmetrically. Lesions have no clear boundaries.
In the photo you can see what this eczema looks like, which can occur in infants and adults.
- Microbial. Develops in areas of skin lesions, which can be microbial and fungal in nature. It is localized in places where there is purulent damage to the skin (ulcers, fistulas, wounds that do not heal well, abrasions). Such eczema can occur if a person has various long-lasting fungal diseases.
- Professional or contact, which occurs if a person has a long and constant contact with substances-irritants. Such eczema develops in open areas of the skin and quickly passes if the allergen is eliminated.
- Seborrheic. This variety is observed in seborrhea and lesions occur in places where there are many sebaceous glands (scalp, face, auricles) and is actively manifested after puberty. With this disease, skin rash can merge with each other and form rings.
- Dyshidrotic. In this form, palms, side surfaces of the fingers and soles are affected. First, bubbles form, then they merge with each other, forming large skin lesions. They can even open and form a wet surface.
- Eczematous cheilitis or lip damage. In humans, there is a rash on the lips, which do not cause complex inflammatory processes and excessive soak. However, crusts and scales form and cracks may occur, which are then covered with dry bloody crusts.
Stages of development of the disease
- Erythematous stage. Spots of inflammatory nature appear on the skin, which gradually merge into one spot.
- Papular stage. At this stage nodules of saturated red color are formed, which reach sizes up to 3 mm and have clear boundaries.
- Vesicular stage At this stage, nodules appear blisters or bubbles filled with a clear liquid, which can reach large sizes.
- Stage soak. Bubbles burst or open, forming erosion of the appropriate size, from which the serous fluid continues to be released.
- Cortical stage. Gradually, this liquid dries out, grayish or yellowish crusts form, under which the horny layer is restored.
- Stage peeling, on which there is an active detachment of crusts and scales from the skin.
In order to properly diagnose the condition of the skin, specific tests are not required. We need a good specialist: a dermatologist or allergist who will carefully examine the skin of the child and the inflammatory foci, analyze and be able to make an accurate diagnosis. Sometimes you may need:
- Blood test (clinical);
- Allergic tests;
- Scale analysis;
- Histology of skin samples (such analysis is carried out to exclude or confirm autoimmune disease).
- To prevent this disease, parents need to take care of the quality of the food of the child or the nursing mother.
- It is also important that the baby’s clothes, toys and cosmetics with which he comes in contact, consist of natural and hypoallergenic fabrics and materials.
- If the crumb is prone to allergies, try to minimize contact with provoking allergens.
- It is also necessary that the diet of the child is balanced, try not to overeat, otherwise there may be problems with the work of the stomach and intestines, which can provoke eczema.
- Surround your baby with calm and love, because such diseases are often observed on the background of nervous stress and overstrain.
- Try to stay in the fresh air as often as possible, especially in warm weather.
Eczema in infants – video
We bring to your attention a video in which it is described in detail what is eczema in children and adults, what are its causes and what methods of treatment give positive results.
We advise you to familiarize yourself with such a disease as psoriasis in children, to be fully armed and to know how this disease can manifest itself and what parents need to do.