Preventing disease is easier than curing. This wise saying was the basis of the system of medical examination, during which the child is regularly examined by doctors.
• The first thorough examination of the baby takes place in the hospital. Then every month he is examined by a pediatrician, four times a year, a neurologist, twice an oculist, an orthopedist and a dentist, once an ENT doctor.
• During the first year of observation in the clinic, you need to do a complete blood count and urine analysis twice, once an ultrasound scan of the hip joints and an ECG.
Newborn (up to 28 days)
The first specialist who cares about the health of the child – neonatologist. He will examine the baby still in the delivery room, to make sure that he does not need help and there are no visible malformations. A neonatologist will come to the postpartum unit every day to monitor the condition of the child and teach you how to care for it.
This doctor evaluates the results of tests (blood, including for some genetic diseases) and studies (ultrasound of the brain) and, if necessary, assigns additional examinations. After discharge you will be given a part of the exchange card with basic information about the health of the baby.
Pediatrician: pediatrician. After you are discharged, the maternity hospital staff will report this to the clinic in the place where you actually live (not according to registration!). Another option – in the maternity hospital, you can get a receipt that you yourself declare yourself to the clinic.
The next day, a pediatrician will come to your home – your primary consultant for all questions. He will also help establish breastfeeding, although now young mothers are increasingly turning to a specialist in breastfeeding.
The first month a pediatrician should come to you every week, but, in fact, if the child is healthy, visits are replaced by phone calls or are completely missed.
With the district pediatrician you will communicate the next 16 years. He will set the dates of vaccinations and scheduled examinations, if necessary – refer to other doctors. Up to nine months, the child must be shown to the pediatrician every month, and then to 1 year.
At this stage, the child must be examined by four specialists: a neurologist, a surgeon, an orthopedist, and an ophthalmologist (optometrist).
Neurologist assesses the movements and behavior of the child (that is, psychomotor development), checks whether his reflexes and muscle tone correspond to the age norm.
Surgeon checks whether the child has a hernia (weak points of the anterior abdominal wall, through which the internal organs bulge out under tension) and other disorders of the body structure.
Orthopedist examines joints (first of all, excludes congenital dislocation of the hip joint) and watches how the baby’s skeleton is formed.
The surgeon, orthopedic surgeon and neurologist can guide the child to a therapeutic massage, gymnastics or swimming. By the way, the tasks of these three specialists are often performed by one, fairly qualified doctor.
Ophthalmologist (he is an optometrist) checks the baby’s vision, which is very important, because the parents do not realize that the child’s behavior is bad, and visual disturbances hinder the development of intelligence. At the first examination, the doctor first of all checks to see if those eye structures that transmit light to the retina are transparent (excludes clouding of the lens – congenital cataract).
In addition, you need to do an ultrasound of the hip joints to prevent dislocation, to pass a general analysis of blood and urine.
It is good if in your clinic a doctor during an ultrasound examines not only the hip joints (as indicated in the order of the Ministry of Health), but also the abdominal organs and kidneys. Unfortunately, this is not done everywhere.
In addition to the usual monthly visits to the pediatrician, you need to show the child to the neurologist to make sure that the development is going right.
You will receive another examination by a neurologist. In addition, an ophthalmologist can call you because, according to many doctors, at the age of 1 month it is too early to assess many indicators (for example, refraction of light – refraction), and at 1 year it may be too late. However, this point is not included in the compulsory inspection plan for six months.
Even if the child does not yet have teeth, you will meet a dentist who will evaluate the condition of the gums, the oral mucosa, and also teach you how to care for your baby’s teeth.
In addition, the surgeon will again examine the child, although if everything went well before that, the doctor may schedule a visit in a year.
In addition to the pediatrician and the neurologist, the ENT doctor (otorhinolaryngologist) will examine the child, who will check the condition of the mucous membranes and hearing. By this time, the baby may have caries, so a mandatory dental examination will be very helpful.
The kid is already starting to walk, and the orthopedist is watching the formation of his foot and other bones.
It is necessary to repeat the general analysis of blood and urine and make an electrocardiogram (ECG) for the first time.